The Zener diode behaves just like a normal general-purpose diode consisting of a silicon PN junction and when biased in the forward direction, that is Anode positive with respect to its Cathode, it behaves just like a normal signal diode passing the rated current.
However, unlike a conventional diode that blocks any flow of current through itself when reverse biased, that is the Cathode becomes more positive than the Anode, as soon as the reverse voltage reaches a pre-determined value, the zener diode begins to conduct in the reverse direction.
This is because when the reverse voltage applied across the zener diode exceeds the rated voltage of the device a process called Avalanche Breakdown occurs in the semiconductor depletion layer and a current starts to flow through the diode to limit this increase in voltage.
The current now flowing through the zener diode increases dramatically to the maximum circuit value (which is usually limited by a series resistor) and once achieved, this reverse saturation current remains fairly constant over a wide range of reverse voltages. The voltage point at which the voltage across the zener diode becomes stable is called the “zener voltage”, ( Vz ) and for zener diodes this voltage can range from less than one volt to a few hundred volts.
The point at which the zener voltage triggers the current to flow through the diode can be very accurately controlled (to less than 1% tolerance) in the doping stage of the diodes semiconductor construction giving the diode a specific zener breakdown voltage, ( Vz ) for example, 4.3V or 7.5V. This zener breakdown voltage on the I-V curve is almost a vertical straight line.
Zener Diode I-V Characteristics
The Zener Diode is used in its “reverse bias” or reverse breakdown mode, i.e. the diodes anode connects to the negative supply. From the I-V characteristics curve above, we can see that the zener diode has a region in its reverse bias characteristics of almost a constant negative voltage regardless of the value of the current flowing through the diode.
This voltage remains almost constant even with large changes in current providing the zener diodes current remains between the breakdown current IZ(min) and its maximum current rating IZ(max).
This ability of the zener diode to control itself can be used to great effect to regulate or stabilize a voltage source against supply or load variations. The fact that the voltage across the diode in the breakdown region is almost constant turns out to be an important characteristic of the zener diode as it can be used in the simplest types of voltage regulator applications.
The function of a voltage regulator is to provide a constant output voltage to a load connected in parallel with it in spite of the ripples in the supply voltage or variations in the load current. A zener diode will continue to regulate its voltage until the diodes holding current falls below the minimum IZ(min) value in the reverse breakdown region.
The Zener Diode Regulator
Zener Diodes can be used to produce a stabilized voltage output with low ripple under varying load current conditions. By passing a small current through the diode from a voltage source, via a suitable current limiting resistor (RS), the Zener diode will conduct sufficient current to maintain a voltage drop of Vought.
We remember from the previous tutorials that the DC output voltage from the half or full-wave rectifiers contains ripple superimposed onto the DC voltage and that as the load value changes so to does the average output voltage. By connecting a simple Zener stabilizer circuit as shown below across the output of the rectifier, a more stable output voltage can be produced.
Zener Diode Regulator
Resistor, RS is connected in series with the Zener diode to limit the current flow through the diode with the voltage source, VS being connected across the combination. The stabilized output voltage Vought is taken from across the Zener diode.
The zener diode is connected with its cathode terminal connected to the positive rail of the DC supply so it is reverse biased and will be operating in its breakdown condition. Resistor RS is selected so to limit the maximum current flowing in the circuit.
With no load connected to the circuit, the load current will be zero, ( IL = 0 ), and all the circuit current passes through the Zener diode which in turn dissipates its maximum power.
Also a small value of the series resistor RS will result in a greater diode current when the load resistance RL is connected and large as this will increase the power dissipation requirement of the diode so care must be taken when selecting the appropriate value of series resistance so that the Zener’s maximum power rating is not exceeded under this no-load or high-impedance condition.
The load is connected in parallel with the Zener diode, so the voltage across RL is always the same as the Zener voltage, ( VR = VZ ).
There is a minimum Zener current for which the stabilization of the voltage is effective and the Zener current must stay above this value operating under load within its breakdown region at all times. The upper limit of current is of course dependent upon the power rating of the device. The supply voltage VS must be greater than VZ.
One small problem with Zener diode stabilizer circuits is that the diode can sometimes generate electrical noise on top of the DC supply as it tries to stabilize the voltage. Normally this is not a problem for most applications but the addition of a large value decoupling capacitor across the Zener’s output may be required to give additional smoothing.
Then to summaries a little. A Zener diode is always operated in its reverse biased condition. As such a simple voltage regulator circuit can be designed using a Zener diode to maintain a constant DC output voltage across the load in spite of variations in the input voltage or changes in the load current.
The Zener voltage regulator consists of a current limiting resistor RS connected in series with the input voltage VS with the Zener diode connected in parallel with the load RL in this reverse biased condition. The stabilized output voltage is always selected to be the same as the breakdown voltage VZ of the diode.
Zener Diode Example No1
A 5.0V stabilized power supply is required to be produced from a 12V DC power supply input source. The maximum power rating PZ of the Zener diode is 2W. Using the Zener regulator circuit above calculate:
a). The maximum current flowing through the Zener diode.
b). The minimum value of the series resistor, RS
c). The load current IL if a load resistor of 1kΩ is connected across the zener diode.
d). The zener current IZ at full load.
Zener Diode Voltages
As well as producing a single stabilized voltage output, Zener diodes can also be connected together in series along with normal silicon signal diodes to produce a variety of different reference voltage output values as shown below.
Zener Diodes Connected in Series
The values of the individual Zener diodes can be chosen to suit the application while the silicon diode will always drop about 0.6 – 0.7V in the forward bias condition. The supply voltage, Vin must of course be higher than the largest output reference voltage and in our example above this is 19v.
A typical zener diode for general electronic circuits is the 500mW, BZX55 series or the larger 1.3W, BZX85 series were the zener voltage is given as, for example, C7V5 for a 7.5V diode giving a diode reference number of BZX55C7V5.
The 500mW series of zener diodes are available from about 2.4 up to about 100 volts and typically have the same sequence of values as used for the 5% (E24) resistor series with the individual voltage ratings for these small but very useful diodes are given in the table below.
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